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May 16, 2019
July 7, 2019

Root Server


The Domain Name System (DNS) is based on a hierarchical structure shaped in the form of an inverted tree, where millions of servers throughout the world have part of the information necessary for the whole system. The root of the system is not made up of a single server, but there are 13 servers performs this functions globally. They are named using the letters A to M. There is no subordination among these servers, they are all equal. Ten of them are located within the U.S., two in Europe and one in Japan.

Mr. Alamgir Kabir, BDIX, Mr. Peter Losher, ISC and Mr. Sumon Ahmed Sabir, Fiber@home Ltd. during setting up of F-root server at BDIX.

The Anycast technique has been used for a long time as way of announcing the same prefix from several different locations. The routing system can identify the nearest location for each user. This technique has been in use for a few years for creating “clones” of a root server, providing a way to work around the technical limitations that do not permit the creation of new root servers. Users will only see the nearest root server and will not see the original copy nor the rest of the copies. This makes the whole system more efficient while adding security and stability. If an anycast copy fails for any reason, users will automatically start seeing other copy or other root servers.

The F-root server is one of the 13 existing Internet DNS root servers that resolve lookups for domain names all over the world and form a critical part of the global Internet infrastructure. The F-root server is operated in honorary form by ISC- the Internet Software Consortium. Within the framework of the collaboration with Internet Systems Consortium (ISC), BDIX is hosting an additional copy (anycast copies or mirror) of the “F” DNS root server in Bangladesh at the Bangladesh Internet Exchange premises which is one of the 50 copies installed over the world.

The root name servers are a critical part of the Internet because they are the first step in translating (resolving) human readable host names into IP addresses that are used in communication between Internet hosts. With the installation of these servers in strategic sites such as IXPs (Internet Exchange Points), it is expected that more direct access to the Internet will be provided for a greater number of users as well as local Internet Service Providers.

Map showing the locations of F-root nodes worldwide  (View F Root in a larger map)

This initiative is undertaken as part of the active role of BDIX as promoter of Internet development within the country. Locating the root servers at Internet exchange point is very economical because it does not need to spend extra money to harden these sites or to develop their connectivity. All equipments for the operators is sponsored by ISC and APNIC, whom we thank for their support.

This service at BDIX enables DNS servers at ISPs to resolve IP addresses more quickly. The time it takes after entering an address in a browser until the connection gets established will be reduced in some instances. It will also make the Internet services and users in Bangladesh more independent, as these requests can now be served from inside the country. Also, in case there might be a major disruption of the main international links connecting to the internet, we have now the ability to resolve all DNS names in our country’s top-level domain. For finding the IP address for a name you put in your browser, the DNS server at your ISP can now contact the root server at BDIX, and will be referred to the server for the destination domain. Deployment of anycast instances of the F-root server further improves its resilience against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks as any attack through denial of service on them will be directed to the closest server and only that one will be affected, giving more stability to the overall system.

For more information about F-Root, visit ISC’s KnowledgeBase

For more information and resources about F-Root, such as locations and identifying which F-root is providing service to you, visit  F-Root Resources Page